Rebel Muses

By

Famous female literary muses Zelda Fitzgerald, Louise Joyce, and Vivienne Eliot were more than just the apple of their respective husbands’ and fathers’ eye. It turns out they were also hard party-ers of the Jazz Age.

“The muse is traditionally a silent, passive figure; a beautiful woman whose beauty alone is enough to inspire artists” writes muse-scholar Lesley McDowell. These women didn’t fit that mold, each taking steps towards establishing their own fame in writing, dancing, and whimsical flapperdom.


Graham Todd is an intern at The Rumpus. He spends his mornings writing post-apocalyptic, vaguely biblical sci-fi horror comedy, his evenings tutoring the wide-eyed youth of the Palo Alto area, and his Thursdays at The Rumpus office, effectively “off the streets”. Beyond this weekly ritual, he enjoys karaoke, the movies, and jogging. More from this author →